Date: 100-50 B.C.E.

Despite its title, 3 Maccabees it not related to the Maccabean revolt described in 1 and 2 Maccabees. Instead, it tells of the persecution of the Jewish people under Ptolemy IV of Egypt in the decades prior to the Maccabean revolt. It is considered similar to the Hebrew book of Esther in how attempts to annihilate the Jewish people are thwarted by God.