Targum Psalm 49:11


8 A man will by no means redeem his brother, who was taken captive, by his riches; and he will not give to God his price of redemption. 9 And he gives his glorious redemption, and his evil will cease, and vengeance forever. 10 And he will live again for eternal life; he will not see the judgment of Gehenna. 11 For the wise will see the wicked, in Gehenna they will be judged; together fools and the stupid will perish, and they will leave their money to the righteous. 12 In their tomb they will abide forever, and they will not rise from their tents for all generations, because they have exalted themselves; and they have acquired an evil name upon the earth. 13 And a wicked man will not lodge in glory with the righteous; he is likened to a beast, he is worth nothing. 14 This their way has caused folly for them; and in their end with their mouth they will recount their offenses in the world to come.

Revelation 2:11

New Testament

8 “To the angel of the church in Smyrna write the following: “This is the solemn pronouncement of the one who is the first and the last, the one who was dead, but came to life: 9 ‘I know the distress you are suffering and your poverty (but you are rich). I also know the slander against you by those who call themselves Jews and really are not, but are a synagogue of Satan. 10 Do not be afraid of the things you are about to suffer. The devil is about to have some of you thrown into prison so you may be tested, and you will experience suffering for ten days. Remain faithful even to the point of death, and I will give you the crown that is life itself. 11 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches. The one who conquers will in no way be harmed by the second death.’

 Notes and References

"... There are six occurrences of the expression Second Death within the official Targums Onqelos and Jonathan, namely Deuteronomy 33:6, Isaiah 22:14, 65:6, 15, and Jeremiah 51:39.57. Moreover, it occurs in some of the Palestinian Targums to Deuteronomy 33:6, and in a variant reading to Targum Psalms 49:11 ... The meturgeman disconnected the positively coloured word ‘wise’ from the negative concept of dying, by taking the wise as the subject of the sentence and adding ‘the wicked’ as direct object. This interpretation reminds of Isaiah 33:17 and 66:24 ..."

Houtman, Alberdina and Magda Misset-van de Weg "The Fate of the Wicked: Second Death in Early Jewish and Christian Texts" in Houtman, Alberdina, et. al. (eds.) Empsychoi Logoi – Religious Innovations in Antiquity: Studies in Honour of Pieter Willem van der Horst (pp. 405-424) Brill, 2008

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