Jonathan Jeremiah 51:39


They will roar like lions, and will lift up their voice like young lions. Bring distress upon them, and they shall be like drunkards so as not to be strong. And they shall die the second death, and shall not live for the world to come, says the Lord. I will hand them over like oxen to slaughter and like rams with goats.

Revelation 2:11

New Testament

9 ‘I know the distress you are suffering and your poverty (but you are rich). I also know the slander against you by those who call themselves Jews and really are not, but are a synagogue of Satan. 10 Do not be afraid of the things you are about to suffer. The devil is about to have some of you thrown into prison so you may be tested, and you will experience suffering for ten days. Remain faithful even to the point of death, and I will give you the crown that is life itself. 11 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches. The one who conquers will in no way be harmed by the second death.’

 Notes and References

"... The Targumim participate in a cosmology that reflects convictions of how eschatological reward and punishment are to be worked out. It is unlikely that the targumic scheme is original; more probably, it reflects widespread expectations. But sometimes the Targumim illuminate otherwise esoteric statements within the New Testament. Isaiah Targum 63:6 specifies the “lower earth” as the place to which God will cast the “mighty men” of his enemies. A similar phrase is used in Ephesians 4:9 in order to refer to Christ’s descent to the dead. Divine anger is invoked in the Isaiah Targum 3:16-24 against women who adorn themselves—especially their hair—in an exaggerated fashion, and that invites comparison with 1 Timothy 2:9 and 1 Peter 3:3. God’s anger is understood to “whiten” (Targum Malachi 3:2) in a way that may illuminate passages such as Mark 9:3 and Revelation 7:14. The definitive punishment of the wicked is that they are to suffer the “second death.” That is the threat of both Targum Jonathan (Isaiah 22:14; 65:6, 15; Jeremiah 51:39, 57) and the Revelation of John (2:11; 20:6, 14; 21:8). Any extension of time serves to allow for the possibility of repentance (see Targum Isaiah 26:10; 42:14; Targum Habakkuk 1:13; 3:1-2; 2 Peter 3:9; Revelation 2:21). When the God who judges in this fashion takes notice of people, a “memorial” or “remembrance” may be said to come before him. This is a generally targumic expression—amply attested in Targum Jonathan—which also appears in the New Testament ..."

Flesher, Paul V. M. & Chilton, Bruce The Targums: A Critical Introduction (p. 401) Brill, 2011

 User Comments

Do you have questions or comments about these texts? Please submit them here.