Romans 5:12

New Testament

12 So then, just as sin entered the world through one man and death through sin, and so death spread to all people because all sinned 13 for before the law was given, sin was in the world, but there is no accounting for sin when there is no law. 14 Yet death reigned from Adam until Moses even over those who did not sin in the same way that Adam (who is a type of the coming one) transgressed. 15 But the gracious gift is not like the transgression. For if the many died through the transgression of the one man, how much more did the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one man Jesus Christ multiply to the many! 16 And the gift is not like the one who sinned. For judgment, resulting from the one transgression, led to condemnation, but the gracious gift from the many failures led to justification.

4 Ezra 7:118

2 Esdras

116 I replied, ‘But this is my point, my first point and my last: how much better it would have been if the earth had never produced Adam at all, or, since it has done so, if he had been restrained from sinning! 117 For what good does it do us all to live in misery now and have nothing but punishment to expect after death? 118 O Adam, what have you done? Your sin was not your fall alone; it was ours also, the fall of all your descendants. 119 What good is the promise of immortality to us, when we have committed mortal sins; 120 or the hope of eternity, in the wretched and futile state to which we have come;

 Notes and References

"... Punishment is the most significant to this study as it directly relates to the eventual “undoing” that Christ does in Paul’s Adam Christology. Furthermore, the relationship between death and sin are thoroughly explored by later writers but seemingly absent of any treatment within Genesis itself. The punishment of eventual death begs the question: would Adam and Eve have lived forever before eating the forbidden fruit? Kugel suggests one possible explanation for this by interpreting the consequence for eating that God warns about in Genesis 2:17 - namely that “as soon as you eat of it you will surely die” - as “gaining mortality” or the “stripping of immortality,” which would suggest that Adam was essentially immortal before. He then offers a convenient summary of a series of Jewish materials from the late 2nd Temple period on this issue which I will survey briefly here. The Wisdom of Solomon (1st c. BCE) suggests that man was made immortal, whereas it was through the “devil’s envy death entered the world” (Wisdom of Solomon 1:13; 2:23-24). Similarly, the collection of writings known as 1 Enoch suggests that humans were made no different from angels and that death as a condition came about to humans only through knowledge (1 Enoch 69:11). Philo (20 BCE - 40 or 50 CE), outright makes the claim that Adam gave up immortality for death. In the first book of the Sibylline Oracles, it is written that God expelled them from the place of the immortals (Sibylline Oracles 1:39-41, 50-51). 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch (late 1st Century CE), both agree that Adam’s violation of his commandment caused the death of all of his descendants (4 Ezra 3:7 and 2 Baruch 17:2-3; 23:4) ..."

Ferrier, Jacob William Paul's Adam Christology, The Eden Myth And Augustine's Idea Of Original Sin (p. 7) University of North Carolina Charlotte, 2021

 User Comments

Do you have questions or comments about these texts? Please submit them here.