Romans 11:25

New Testament

24 For if you were cut off from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and grafted, contrary to nature, into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these natural branches be grafted back into their own olive tree? 25 For I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, so that you may not be conceited: A partial hardening has happened to Israel until the full number of the Gentiles has come in. 26 And so all Israel will be saved, as it is written:“The Deliverer will come out of Zion; he will remove ungodliness from Jacob. 27 And this is my covenant with them, when I take away their sins.” 28 In regard to the gospel they are enemies for your sake, but in regard to election they are dearly loved for the sake of the fathers. 29 For the gifts and the call of God are irrevocable.

4 Ezra 4:35

2 Esdras

34 He replied, ‘Do not be in a greater hurry than the Most High himself. You are in a hurry for yourself alone; the Most High for many. 35 Are not these the very questions which were asked by the righteous in the storehouse of souls: “How long must we stay here? When will the harvest begin, the time when we get our reward?” 36 And the arch-angel Uriel gave them this answer: “As soon as the number of those like yourselves is complete. For the Lord has weighed the world in a balance, 37 he has measured and numbered the ages; he will move nothing, alter nothing, until the appointed number is achieved.”‘ 38 ‘But, my lord, my master,’ I replied, ‘we are all of us sinners through and through. 39 Can it be that because of us, because of the sins of mankind, the harvest and the reward of the just are delayed?’

 Notes and References

"... Donaldson notes two Pauline assumptions underlying the temporal view: (1) Paul 'believes that the parousia will bring to an end the opportunity of salvation for the Gentiles.' This may be suggested in Paul's talk of 'the fullness of the Gentiles' (Rom 11:25); it is seen more clearly in I Cor I 5:23; 2 Cor 6:2; I Thess 4:13-17; and 2 Thess 5:2-10. (2) Paul 'believes that the reversal of Israel's present situation of stumbling/defeat/rejection, will precipitate the eschatological age itself.' These two convictions of Paul have Jewish parallels. Donaldson finds parallels to the first conviction in exclusivist streams of Second Temple Judaism, which were (perhaps reluctantly) open to proselytes in the present (2 Apoc. Bar. 41:1-6; 1QS 6:13-15; CD 14:4-5) but saw no possibility of conversion or even the presence of Gentiles in the future age (4 Ezra 8:56-58; CD 4:7-12; t. Sanh. 13.2; b. Abod. Zar. 3b; Pesiqta Rabbati 161a). He concludes, 'There is every reason, then, to suppose that for one strand of Judaism, at least, the Gentiles' hope of salvation in the Age to Come depended on their becoming proselytes in the present' (Apocalypse of Abraham 23:5; 4 Ezra 4:35-43; b. Sanhedrin 97b-98a; b. Shabbat 118b; Sifre Deuteronomy 41) ..."

Baker, Murray Paul and the Salvation of Israel: Paul's Ministry, the Motif of Jealousy, and Israel's Yes (pp. 469-484) The Catholic Bible Quarterly, 2005

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