4 Ezra 4:41

2 Esdras

40 ‘Go,’ he said, ‘ask a pregnant woman whether she can keep the child in her womb any longer after the nine months are complete.’ 41 ‘No, my lord,’ I said, ‘she cannot.’ He went on: 42 ‘The storehouses of souls in the world below are like the womb. As a woman in travail is impatient to see the end of her labor, so they are impatient to give back all the souls committed to them since time began. 43 Then all your questions will be answered.’

Revelation 20:13

New Testament

11 Then I saw a large white throne and the one who was seated on it; the earth and the heaven fled from his presence, and no place was found for them. 12 And I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne. Then books were opened, and another book was opened—the book of life. So the dead were judged by what was written in the books, according to their deeds. 13 The sea gave up the dead that were in it, and Death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and each one was judged according to his deeds. 14 Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death—the lake of fire. 15 If anyone’s name was not found written in the book of life, that person was thrown into the lake of fire.

 Notes and References

"... The first maternal metaphor concerning the earth in 4 Ezra, 4:40–42 is associated with the resurrection of the dead. The language in those verses of “giving back” the dead is also found in the description of the resurrection in 4 Ezra 7:32: “And the earth shall give back those who are asleep in it, and the dust those who rest in it, and the treasuries shall give up the souls which have been committed to them.” As Richard Bauckham has shown, the language of the earth or underworld “giving back” or “returning” (n-t-l G-stem or p-n-y C-stem in the Syriac of 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch) the dead is quite widespread in Jewish apocalyptic literature, as well as in later Christian and Jewish texts. He suggests that the tradition originated from an interpretation of the end of Isaiah 26:19, ליפתםיאפרץראו, understood to mean “the earth will give birth to the shades” (cf. the usage of לפנ in Isa 26:18) ..."

Hogan, Karina M. "The Apocalyptic Eschatology of Romans" The Jewish Apocalyptic Tradition and the Shaping of New Testament Thought, edited by Loren T. Stuckenbruck (p. 163) Fortress Press, 2017

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