Dead Sea Scrolls

Interpreted, this saying [concerns] those who turn aside from the way [of the people] as it is written in the book of Isaiah the Prophet concerning the last days, It came to pass that [the Lord turned me aside, as with a mighty hand, from walking in the way of ] this people. They are those of whom it is written in the book of Ezekiel the Prophet, The Levites [strayed far from me, following] their idols are the sons of Zadok who [seek their own] counsel and follow. They are the sons of Zadok who [seek their own] counsel and follow [their own inclination] apart from the Council of the Community. [Why] do the nations [rage] and the peoples meditate [vanity? Why do the kings of the earth] rise up, [and the] princes take counsel together against the Lord and against [His Messiah]? Interpreted, this saying concerns [the kings of the nations] who shall [rage against] the elect of Israel in the last days. This shall be the time of the trial to come concerning the house of Judah so as to perfect ... Belial, and a remnant of the people shall be left according to the lot (assigned to them), and they shall practise the whole Law... Moses.

Revelation 2:10

New Testament

8 “To the angel of the church in Smyrna write the following: “This is the solemn pronouncement of the one who is the first and the last, the one who was dead, but came to life: 9 ‘I know the distress you are suffering and your poverty (but you are rich). I also know the slander against you by those who call themselves Jews and really are not, but are a synagogue of Satan. 10 Do not be afraid of the things you are about to suffer. The devil is about to have some of you thrown into prison so you may be tested, and you will experience suffering for ten days. Remain faithful even to the point of death, and I will give you the crown that is life itself. 11 The one who has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches. The one who conquers will in no way be harmed by the second death.’

 Notes and References

"... A final example reveals still more of the community’s self-understanding. In an interpretation of Psalm 1, 4Q174 indicates that those who turn from the “way” (ךרד) of sinners (Ps 1:1) are to be identified with the prophet whom God warned not to walk in the “way” of the people (Isa 8:11). As becomes clear, both passages are seen as referring to the scribe’s own community, who must endure a time of testing in these latter days, a period referred to in 4Q174 as “the time of refining that is coming” (האבה ףרצמה תע)—itself an exegetically derived phrase (Dan 11:32, 35, cf. Ps 105:19).12 The expectation of testing, especially in the last days, was a common feature of early Christian belief (e.g., Acts 14:22; 2 Tim 3:1; Rev 2:10) ..."

Carlson, Reed A Structure for the End of the World: 4QFlorilegium and the “Latter Days” in Early Jewish Tradition (pp. 246-254) Word & World Volume 40, Number 3, 2020

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